Geographies of the Underworld: Chthonic Poetics and Virtual Worlds  
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Critical Theory (incl. Architecture, Digital Media, Literary)

Altman, Irwin. Culture and environment. 1984 .

Anders , Peter. Envisioning cyberspace : designing 3D electronic spaces. 1999.

Antoniades , Anthony C.. 1992. Poetics of Architecture: Theory of Design. Wiley.

Aries , Philippe. Images of Man and Death. Harvard University Press (1985).

Gaston Bachelard. The Poetics of Space. 1994. Beacon Press.

Gaston Bachelard. The Poetics of Reverie. 1971. Beacon Press.

Balsamo , Gian ."The Necropolitan Journey: Dante's Negative Poetics in James Joyce's "The Dead"." James Joyce Quarterly  40, no. 4 (July 1, 2003): 763-781. 

Bernstein , Alan E.. The Formation of Hell: Death and Retribution in the Ancient and Early Christian Worlds. Cornell University Press (1996)

Bodewitz , H W ."The dark and deep underworld in the Veda." Journal of the American Oriental Society  122, no. 2 (April 1, 2002): 213-223. 

Bolter, Jay David and Richard Grusin. Remediation: Understanding New Media. Cambridge: MIT Press. 1999.

Borden , Iain .  Strangely Familiar: Narratives of Architecture in the City
Routledge (1996). 

Borges , Jorge Luis. Seven Nights. New Directions Publishing Corporation (1984).

Borges , Jorge Luis. 1964. Labyrinths. Middlesex, England: Penguin.

Bornhofen, Patricia Lynn. Cosmography and Chaography: Baroque to Neobaroque, a study in poetics and cultural logic. Ann Arbor: UMI. 1995.

Burdon , Christopher ."Hell in Contemporary Literature: Western Descent Narratives since 1945." Literature & Theology  21, no. 2 (June 1, 2007): 232-234. 

Campbell, Joseph. The Hero with a Thousand Faces. Princeton University Press (1972).

Casey , Edward. The Fate of Place: A Philosophical History. University of California Press (1998).

Castle, Terry. “Phantasmagoria: Spectral technology and the Metaphorics of Modern Reverie.” Critical Inquiry 15(Autumn): 26-61.

Collins, Christopher. 1991. The Poetics of the Mind's Eye : Literature and the Psychology of Imagination. Philadelphia: University of Pennsylvania Press.

Collins, Jim. 1998. Architectures of Excess: Cultural Life in the Information Age. New York: Routledge.

Darley, Andrew. Visual digital culture : surface play and spectacle in new media genres . 2000.

Davidson , Clifford (Editor). Iconography of Hell (Early drama, art, and music monograph series). Western Michigan Univ (1992).

Davis, Erik. 1998. Techgnosis: Myth, Magic + Mysticism in the Age of Information. New York: Harmony.

Debord , Guy, Ken Knabb (Translator) .  Society of the Spectacle. AKPress (2006).

Detienne , Marcel.  The Creation of Mythology. Univ of Chicago Pr (1986).

Dika, Vera. 1990. Games of Terror. Toronto: Associated University Presses.

Doob, Penelope Reed. 1990. The Idea of the Labyrinth from Classical Antiquity through the Middle Ages. Ithica: Cornell University Press.

Eliade, Mircea. 1961. The Sacred and the Profane. New York: Harper Row.

Ellin, Nan, editor . Architecture of fear.  1997.

Entrikin, Nicholas J..  The Betweenness of Place: Towards a Geography of Modernity.
The Johns Hopkins University Press (1991).

Franke, William. 1996. Dante's Interpretive Journey. Chicago: University of Chicago Press.

Gardiner,  Eileen.  Medieval Visions of Heaven and Hell: A Sourcebook (Garland Medieval Bibliographies) Routledge (1993).

Gardiner , Eileen (Editor) .  Visions of Heaven and Hell Before Dante. Italica Press (1989)

Gellman-Waxner, Libby. "Afterlife, After Lunch" If You Ask Me. (1994) St. Martins.

Guthke, Karl S. 1990. The Last frontier: Imagining Other Worlds, from the Copernican Revolution to Modern Science Fiction. Ithica and London: Cornell University Press.

Healy, Dave. 1997. “Cyberspace and Place: The Internet as Middle Landscape on the Electronic Frontier.” In Internet Culture, ed, David Porter, 55-68. New York: Routledge.

Heyden, Doris. Pre-Columbian architecture of Mesoamerica. 1988.

Hillman , James, Dream & the Underworld. Harper Paperbacks (1979).

Jahshan, Paul. Cybermapping and the writing of myth. 2007.

Juul, Jesper, Half-real : video games between real rules and fictional worlds. 2005.

Kearney, Richard. 1998. Poetics of Imagining : Modern to Post-modern Perspectives in Continental Philosophy. New York, N.Y.: Edinburgh University Press.

Kennedy-O'Neill, Joy D. "The sacred and the sublime: Caves in American literature". Ph.D. diss., Indiana University of Pennsylvania, 2007. In ProQuest Digital Dissertations [database on-line]; available from (publication number AAT 3258663; accessed August 30, 2007).

Kleiner , John. "Mismapping the Underworld: Daring and Error in Dante's 'Comedy'"

Kowalski , Jeff Karl, ed. Mesoamerican architecture as a cultural symbol. 1999.

Langley , Patricia . "Why a pomegranate?" British Medical Journal  321, no. 7269 (November 4, 2000): 1153-1154. 

Lansing Smith , Evans ."FRAMING THE UNDERWORLD: THRESHOLD IMAGERY IN MURNAU, COCTEAU, AND BERGMAN." Literature/Film Quarterly  24, no. 3 (July 1, 1996): 241-254. 

Lefebvre , Henri, Donald Nicholson-Smith (Translator). The Production of Space [ILLUSTRATED]. Blackwell Publishing Limited (1991).

Lewis-Williams , David. The Mind in the Cave: Consciousness and the Origins of Art .
Thames & Hudson (2004).

Lévi-Strauss, Claude. 1964/1994. The Raw and the Cooked- Introduction to a Science of Mythology. London: Pimlico.

Lincoln , Bruce.  Theorizing Myth: Narrative, Ideology, and Scholarship.
University Of Chicago Press (2000).

Lotman, Yuri M. 1990. Universe of the Mind: A Semiotic Theory of Culture. London: I.B. Taurus.

Ndalianis, Angela. 2004. Neo-Baroque aesthetics and contemporary entertainment. Cambridge: MIT Press.

Nye, Russell B. "Eight ways of looking at an amusement park" Journal of Popular Culture, 15 no 1: 70.

MacDonald , Ronald R..  The Burial-Places of Memory: Epic Underworlds in Vergil, Dante, and Milton . University of Massachusetts Press (1987).

Marling, Karal Ann, ed. Designing Disney's Themeparks: the architecture of reassurance. Flammarion: Paris. 1997.

Martin, Calvin Luther, In the Spirit of the Earth: Rethinking History and Time.  The Johns Hopkins University Press (1993).

Mayra, Frans. 2008. Game Studies: Games in Culture. New York: Sage Publications Ltd.

Mayra, Frans.            1999. Demonic Texts and Textual Demons: The Demonic Tradition, the Self, and Popular Fiction. Tampere University Press.

Michelet , Fabienne. Creation, Migration, and Conquest: Imaginary Geography and Sense of Space in Old English Literature. Oxford University Press (2006).

Mugerauer, Robert. Interpreting environments : tradition, deconstruction, hermeneutics .  1995.

Obertino, James "Moria and Hades: Underworld journeys in Tolkien and Virgil." Comparative Literature Studies  30, no. 2 (January 1, 1993): 153. 

Perniola, Mario. 1990/1995. Enigmas: the Egyptian Movement in Society and Art. London and New York: Verso.

Pickover , Clifford A., ed.. Visions of the future : art, technology, and computing in the twenty-first century. 1992.

 Pike , David L..  . Passage Through Hell: Modernist Descents, Medieval Underworlds. Cornell University Press (1997).

Porteous , J. Douglas. Landscapes of the Mind: Worlds of Sense and Metaphor.
Univ of Toronto Pr (1990).

Qvortrup , Lars (ed.). Virtual space : spatiality in virtual inhabited 3D worlds. 2002

Ryan, Marie-Laure. Narrative as Virtual Reality: Immersion and Interactivity in Literature and Electronic Media. The Johns Hopkins University Press (2003).

Schumacher, Thomas L.. Terragni's Danteum : Architecture, Poetics, and Politics under Italian Fascism. 1997. Princeton Architectural Press.

Sánchez-Escalonilla , Antonio . "The Hero as a Visitor in Hell: The Descent into Death in Film Structure." Journal of Popular Film & Television  32, no. 4 (January 1, 2005): 149-156. (accessed August 30, 2007).

Smith , Jonathan Z. , Map is not Territory: Studies in the History of Religions.
University Of Chicago Press (1993).

Smith, Jonathan Z., To Take Place: Toward Theory in Ritual. University Of Chicago Press (1992).

Taylor, T. L. Play between worlds : exploring online game culture. 2006.

Turner , Alice K.. The History of Hell . Harvest Books (1995).

Turner, Victor. 2001. The Anthropology of Experience. University of Illinois Press.

Turner, Victor. 1995. The Ritual Process: Structure and Anti-Structure . New York: Aldine Transaction.

Turner, Victor. 1982. From Ritual to Theatre: The Human Seriousness of Play. New York: PAJ Publications.

van Schaik, Leon, ed. Poetics in Architecture. 2002. Academy Press.

Wegner , Phillip E..   Imaginary Communities: Utopia, the Nation, and the Spatial Histories of Modernity. University of California Press (2002).

Wertheim , Margaret. The pearly gates of cyberspace : a history of space from Dante to the Internet. New York : W.W. Norton, 1999.

Wilber, Shawn P. “An Archaeology of Cyberspaces: Virtuality, Community, Identity.” In Internet Culture, ed. David Porter, 5-22. New York: Routledge.

Zipes, Jack. Breaking the Spell: Radical Theories of Folk and Fairy Tales. Austin: Uod Texas press.1979

"The hero's descent to the underworld in Chekhov." The Russian Review  53, no. 1 (January 1, 1994): 67.

Literature and Visual Art (Primary Sources)

Anon., The Popol Vuh.

Coleman , Graham (Editor), Thupten Jinpa (Editor), Gyurme Dorje (Translator) . The Tibetan Book of the Dead: First Complete Translation . Penguin Classics (2007).

Dixon , Laurinda.  Bosch A&I. Phaidon Press (2003).


Dante Alighieri. The Divine Comedy: Inferno; Purgatorio; Paradiso (Everyman's Library)

Dore , Gustave.  Illustrations for "Paradise Lost" (Dover Pictorial Archives)

Gibson , Walter S.. Hieronymus Bosch . Thames & Hudson (1985).

Hornung, Erik. The Ancient Egyptian Books of the Afterlife. Cornell University Press (1999).

Mackie , C J . "Scamander and the rivers of Hades in Homer." American Journal of Philology  120, no. 4 (January 1, 1999): 485-501. (accessed August 30, 2007).

Molyviati-Toptsis, Urania "Vergil's elysium and the orphic-pythagorean ideas of after-life." Mnemosyne  47, no. 1 (February 1, 1994): 33. (accessed August 30, 2007).

Picard , Jean-Michel.  The Vision Of Tnugdal.


Archaeological and Anthropological Works: General
Baggs , Sydney and Joan . THE UNDERWORLD in Myth, Magic and Mystery . BookSurge Publishing (2003).

Bradford, J.S.P. Ancient Landscapes. London and Toronto. (1957)

Childe, V.G. (1945) "Directional Changes in funerary practices during 50,000 years". Man 45, article 4.

Eshleman , Clayton . Juniper Fuse: Upper Paleolithic Imagination & the Construction of the Underworld .Wesleyan University Press (2003).

Fraser, Sir J. G . Fear of the Dead in Primitive Religion. (1933-6).

Grinsell, Leslie V. Barrow, Pyramid and Tomb. Thames and Hudson LTD: London. 1975.
- funeral rites and tombs in Egyp, the med and Brittain
- chapter on cross-cultural examination of journey to afterlife

Karkov , Catherine E. (Editor), Kelley M. Wickham-Crowley (Editor), Bailey K. Young (Editor).  Spaces of the Living and the Dead: An Archaeological Dialogue. Oxbow Books Ltd (1999).

Price , Neil (Editor) .  The Archaeology of Shamanism. Routledge (2001).

Spague, R. “A suggested terminology and classification of burial description”, American Antiquity 33(40, 479-85). (1968)


Archaeological and Anthropological Works: Central and South American

Bassie-Sweet , Karen.  At the Edge of the World: Caves and Late Classic Maya World View. University of Oklahoma Press (1996).

Betanzos, Juan De. Roland Hamilton, trans. Narrative of the Incas. 1996. Austin: U of texas press.

Cobo, Bernabe. Inca Religion and Customs. 1990. Roland B Hamilton, transs. Austin: u of tex press

Damian, Carol. 1995. "From Pachamama to the Virgin Mary: what the spanish never saw", in Penny Dransart, ed. Andean Art: Visual Expression and Its Relation to Andean Beleifs and Values. Aldershot: Avebury.

Knab , T. J. The Dialogue of Earth and Sky: Dreams, Souls, Curing, and the Modern Aztec Underworld. University of Arizona Press (October 2004).

Jurgen W Kremer "The Maya shape of time." ReVision  23, no. 2 (October 1, 2000): 24-37. (accessed August 30, 2007).


Niles, Susan A. The Shape of Inca History: narrative and architecture in an Andean empire. 1999. Iowa City: University of Iowa Press.

Niles, Susan and Robert Batson and Christopher Blechschmidt. 1998. Big Buildings and Small Plazas: shifting perspectives in inca ritual space. 38th annual meeting of the institute of andean studies, berkeley.

Salomon, Frank and George Urioste. 1991. The Huarochiri Manuscript: a testament of ancient and colonial andean religion. Austi: u of t press

Schele , Linda, Peter Mathews , and Macduff Everton .  The Code of Kings: The Language of Seven Sacred Maya Temples and Tombs . Scribner (1999).

Shaw , Leslie C ."Stone Houses and Earth Lords: Maya Religion in the Cave Context." The Americas  64, no. 1 (July 1, 2007): 100-101.

Stone , Andrea J..  Images from the Underworld: Naj Tunich and the Tradition of Maya Cave Painting . University of Texas Press; (1995).


Archaeological and Anthropological Works: European, Mediterranean and Near East

Boustan , Ra'anan S.. Heavenly Realms and Earthly Realities in Late Antique Religions.
Cambridge University Press (2004).

Bruce- Mitford, R.L.S. (1972) The Sutton-Hoo Ship Burial: A Handbook.

Collins , Billie Jean . "A Channel to the Underworld in Syria." Near Eastern Archaeology  67, no. 1 (March 1, 2004): 54-56. (accessed August 30, 2007).

Cumont, F . The After-life in Roman Paganism. Yale. Chapter IV. The Journey to the Beyond. (1922).

Edmonds III, Radcliffe G. . Myths of the Underworld Journey: Plato, Aristophanes, and the 'Orphic' Gold Tablets. Cambridge University Press (2004).

Ellis, H.R.E. The Road to Hel. (1943)

Green, Aldhouse.  An Archaeology of Images: Iconology and Cosmology in Iron Age and Roman Europe. Routledge  (2004).

Johnston , Sarah Iles. . Restless Dead: Encounters between the Living and the Dead in Ancient Greece . University of California Press (1999).

Mojsov , Bojana ."The Ancient Egyptian underworld in the tomb of Sety I: Sacred books of eternal life." The Massachusetts Review  42, no. 4 (January 1, 2001): 489-506. 

Murray, M.A. "Burial Customs and beleifs in the hereafter in predynastic Egypt" JEA 42, 86-96. (1956).

Reinhardt , Tobias ."Readers in the underworld: Lucretius, De rerum natura 3.912-1075." The Journal of Roman Studies  94, (January 1, 2004): 27-46. 

Toynbee, JMC . Death and Burial in the Roman World. (1971).


Archaeological and Anthropological Works: Asian
Balzas, Etienne. Chinese Civilization and Buerocracy. (1964) Yale Press.

Paul W Kroll "The Problem of Meaning in Early Chinese Ritual Bronzes."  Journal of the American Oriental Society  116, no. 2 (April 1, 1996): 367-369. (accessed August 30, 2007).

Wright, A F. "Symbolism and Function: reflections on Changan and other great cities", Journal of Asian Studies, 24 (1965): 667-79.